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Rebranding an Institution of Higher Education in Botswana - Data Analysis and FindingsAfter attaining 336 useable responses, data obtained from the questionnaires was analyzed using frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, paired t-tests and regression in SPSS. The frequency analysis for the respondent profile is given in Table 1. An analysis of the demographic profile of the respondents presented in Table 1 reveals that a majority of the respondents were females and were in the age group 18 and 25 years.
Dimensions of Brand Equity between the Old Logo and New Logo
In order to compare perceptions of brand equity between the old and new logo, two separate exploratory factor analysis were conducted for each logo. The primary goal of the exploratory factor analysis was to identify the key dimensions of brand equity for the University of Botswana using the current data. In conducting the exploratory factor analysis, the Principal components method was used, with eigen values set to be greater than 1 with a rotation method of Varimax. The data was sorted by size and coefficients less than.4 were suppressed. Then, Cronbach Alpha was used to assess the reliability of the key dimensions of brand equity that emerged between the two logos. The results of the exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis using Cronbach Alpha are depicted in Table 2. Table 2 indicates that two dimensions of brand equity emerged for both the old and new logo. Eighteen out of nineteen items were retained for the old logo and the total variance explained by the two dimensions is 69.36%. The item ‘I like and trust this logo’ was deleted as it loaded equally in both dimensions. Just as in the case of the old logo, eighteen out of nineteen items were retained and the total variance explained by the two dimensions is 68.07%. The item ‘I can recall this logo quickly was deleted as it achieved a very weak factor loading.”The two dimensions for both the old and new logo were labeled as follows: Factor 1: Brand image -which includes affection, attraction, attachment, loyalty, trust, and preference. Factor 2: Brand Awareness covers familiarity, knowledge, recall and recognition, all of which relate to an individual’s thought process and intellectual activity. Although a total of eighteen items of brand equity were retained under both the old and new logo, the item ‘ this logo is unique when compared with other competing ones’ loaded under the brand image dimension for the old logo while for the new logo the item loaded under the brand awareness. In addition, the Alpha coefficients for brand image and brand awareness for both the old and new logo achieved higher reliability coefficients.
Perceptions of Brand Equity between the Old Logo and New Logo
In order to identify significant differences in the perceptions of brand equity between the old and new logo firstly, Paired t-tests were used (Table 3). The results of a series of paired t-tests depicted in Table 3 reveal that there is a significant difference in perceptions of brand equity between the old and new logo. In particular, the old logo achieved higher brand image and brand awareness than the new logo.
When using the dimension of Brand image as a basis for comparison, it is clear that the means of the old logo are higher than that of the new logo for the ten items. In fact, the means of the old logo ranged from 3.26 to 3.73 while for the new logo the means ranged from 2.81 to 3.13. However, two items ‘I consider myself loyal to this logo’ and ‘this logo increases the respectability of students’ achieved the two highest means for both the old logo and new logo. The two lowest means for the new logo were for the following two items ‘this logo expresses my personality’ and ‘thinking about this logo brings me a lot of joy and pleasure’. When comparing both logos based on Brand Awareness, the old logo scored the highest means. In fact, means ranged from 3.92 to 4.40 for the old logo while the means for the new logo ranged from 2.81 to 4.21. Overall, the means of brand awareness for both logos were higher than that of the brand image. The two highest means for both the old and the new logo were for the following items: ‘I am familiar with this logo’ and ‘I can recognize this logo quickly among competing ones’. Nonetheless, the lowest mean was for the item ‘I know what this logo stands for.
Secondly, to assess the role of brand equity on overall attitudes towards University of Botswana after the rebranding exercise, regression (Enter method) was used. All the sixteen items of brand equity for the new logo were used as predictors (independent variables). The only significant and positive effect was found for knowledge of the new logo (P =.23, t= 3.18, p =.002). The results suggest that the students who had more knowledge about the new logo were more likely to depict positive attitudes about the University of Botswana after the rebranding exercise.

Table 1. Respondents’ Profile

Characteristics Frequency Percentage
Gender
Male 154 45.8
Female 182 54.2
Total 336 100
Age
Less than 18years 14 4.2
18-25 years 272 81
26-35 years 33 9.8
36-45 years 15 4.5
46 years + 2 0.6
Total 336 100

Table 2. Factor analysis of Brand Equity for the University of Botswana before and after Rebranding (n = 336)

Before Rebranding (Old Logo) After Rebranding (New Logo)
FactorLoading % of variance Alpha (a) FactorLoading % of variance Alpha (a)
Factor 1: Brand Image 59.66 59.05
a =.96 a =.96
I am attracted to this logo .86 .85
I am attached to this logo .85 .87
I have a lot of affection for this logo .85 .89
I would love to recommend this logo .82 .80
Thinking about this logo brings me a lot of joy and pleasure .82 .82
I will not consider any other logo but this one .82 .76
This logo would be my first choice .80 .75
This logo expresses my personality .79 .81
This logo increases the respectability of the students .76 .76
I consider myself loyal to this logo .71 .69
This logo is unique when compared to other competing ones .52 Factor 2
I like and trust this logo N/A .67
Factor 2 – Brand Awareness 9.69 9.02
a =.88 a =.84
I can recognize this logo quickly among competing ones .82 .83
I am familiar with this logo .79 .80
Some characteristics of this logo come to mind quickly .76 .66
I know what this logo stands for .71 .55
Some characteristics of this logo come to mind quickly when I see it. .69 .52
When I think of tertiary institutions, this logo comes to mind. .66 .68
I can quickly recall this logo .63 N/A
This logo is unique compared when compared with to other competing ones Factor 1 .64

Table 3. A Comparison of Consumer Perceptions of Brand Equity after Rebranding

Old Logo Mean (SD) New Logo Means (SD) t Sig
Factor 1: Brand Image
I am attracted to this logo 3.45 (1.41) 3.01 (1.36) 3.45 .001
Thinking about this logo brings me a lot of joy and pleasure 3.47 (1.46) 2.81 (1.32) 5.57 .001
I have a lot of affection for this logo 3.48 (1.42) 2.90 (1.34) 4.77 .001
I will not consider any other logo but this one 3.49 (1.41) 2.88 (1.32) 5.01 .001
I am attached to this logo 3.43 (1.42) 2.87 (1.32) 4.67 .001
I would love to recommend this logo 3.66 (1.38) 3.06 (1.36) 4.61 .001
This logo would be my first choice 3.66 (1.46) 3.01 (1.37) 4.75 .001
This logo expresses my personality 3.26 (1.39) 2.82 (1.32) 4.01 .001
This logo increases the respectability of the students 3.73 (1.24) 3.09 (1.23) 5.70 .001
I consider myself loyal to this logo 3.72 (1.29) 3.13 (1.30) 5.04 .001
Factor 2 Brand Awareness
Some characteristics of this logo come to mind quickly 4.18 (1.14) 3.13 (1.35) 9.71 .001
I can recognize this logo quickly among competing ones 4.22 (1.07) 4.02 (1.17) 2.24 .026
I know what this logo stands for 4.02 (1.23) 2.81 (1.42) 11.34 .001
Some characteristics of University of Botswana come to mind quickly when I see this logo 4.14 (1.09) 3.08 (1.29) 4.62 .001
I am familiar with this logo 4.40 (1.08) 4.21 (1.17) 2.12 .035
When I think of tertiary institutions, this logo comes to mind 3.92 (1.23) 3.41 (1.34) 10.49 .001