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This is the kind of person who has been exposed to, for example, the language intricacies of his own native tongue and those of another language. Such a person has the potential to develop “his or her own third way, based on the combined knowledge and experience of more than one native language”. This puts students into a precarious position but ultimately one of enrichment. Such experiences offer the intercultural speakers deeper insights and understanding in both cultures (own and learned). It appears that English is the preferred option for linguistic unity, allowing people from different first language backgrounds to communicate. As a consequence, nearly all Europeans, irrespective of social class, are provided with instructions in English. The language is also accepted as an international or global language. It should be noted that the following statements are not questioned and some are perhaps the fundamental reason why so many students across the world study English at University level:
-English is the language spoken by more non-native speakers than native speakers -English is the language to have access to journals and conferences -English is the dominant language in publishing
-English is used when the content of courses, manuals and software have a bilingual or trilingual pattern
-Multinationals are set up in Europe and irrespective of their location, English is the working language
-English language education is compulsory in most schools
House suggests that when English is used in mutually occurring contexts, then the outcome will be much stronger and more relevant for its intended use. Frydryclova Klimova reports that the European Union (EU) emphasizes that Content and Integrated Language Learning (CLIL) in which pupils learn a subject through the medium of a foreign language, has a major contribution to make to the Union’s language learning goals. It can provide effective opportunities for pupils to use their new language skills now rather than learn them now for use later. It opens doors on languages for a broader range of learners, nurturing self-confidence in young learners and those who have not responded well to formal language instruction in general education. It provides exposure to the language without requiring extra time in the curriculum which can be of particular interest in vocational settings. The introduction of CLIL approaches into an institution can be facilitated by the presence of trained teachers who are native speakers of the vehicular language. The authors consider in this context that the example of the EU is relevant to this research as many languages are spoken within the current member states of the EU. The combined learning knowledge and experiences from Europe are relevant and should be taken into consideration as it is suggested that these can be applied universally, subject to local prevailing cultural differences.
Hismanoglu and Hismanoglu consider that, based on the constructivist theory of learning and communicative language teaching methodology, the task-based viewpoint of language teaching has emerged in response to some constraints of the traditional Presentation, Practice and Performance (PPP) approach.
It has the significant meaning that language learning is a developmental process enhancing communication and social interaction rather than a product internalized by practicing language items, and that learners master the target language more powerfully when being exposed to meaningful task-based activities in a natural way. It was in the 1980s that this viewpoint of language learning gave rise to the popularity of various task-based approaches. Moreover, during the 1990s, it developed into a comprehensive structure for the communicative classroom where learners did task-based activities via cycles of pre-task preparation, task performance, and post-task feedback via language focus (Skehan, 1996). According to Ellis task-based language teaching has been re-investigated recently from a variety of perspectives covering oral performance, writing performance and performance assessment.