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The focus group members identified that effective language teaching skills and the methods of teaching language teachers apply will lead to improved language proficiency levels of students, particularly at intermediate and advanced levels. They consider that knowledge of the words and vocabulary of a language on its own does not increase the proficiency levels of language students in that particular language. They suggest that the attitude of the teacher how they wish to pass on their extensive knowledge and practical experiences of a particular language are of paramount importance. For example, a good and competent car driver is more likely to teach someone else how to drive with competence if they have the right positive attitude towards teaching others how to become a good driver. In addition, language teachers need to consider new ways of passing on their knowledge and experience to others in such a way that students
feel compelled to learn more and to drive themselves for higher levels of language proficiencies that they thought they could never achieve. Table 2 is a summary of the application and rankings of the examined language teaching skills set. Results from this research suggest that language teachers who adopt and apply these skills are more likely to increase the language proficiency levels of their students. It appears, based on the strength of evidence from the results of this research, that the language teaching skills of language teachers can be improved in a number of ways: Monotheistic Concept

Develop ‘Can Do’ attitudes within students and drive them to higher language proficiency levels
Turn any negative attitudes towards more in depth learning into positive ones by selling the students the benefits for doing so
Convince students to try new ways of learning in both familiar and unfamiliar territories by changing their mind sets to put efforts where the greatest achievements can be made.
Search for new established or untried methods of teaching language skills, adopt/ adapt these and then make them fit for purpose for the UO
Invite more native language speakers from Universities and the Business World to improve the language proficiency levels of students in order to get them ready for the world that exists outside of the safe environment of the UO
Visit language teaching facilities in other countries and prepare proposals how to introduce new language teaching methods into the UO within current guidelines and budget limitations
Koch suggests that the approach developed by the Italian economist and sociologist Vilifredo Pareto should be applied to become more effective and efficient in whatever people undertake to do. Koch questions the need to spend equal time on all work activities. To achieve, for example, higher levels of language proficiency, one should put one’s efforts where the greatest achievements can be delivered. Koch suggests that 80% of what is important can be achieved with only 20% of effort (Fig.2).

Table 2: Application and Ranking of the examined Language Teaching Skills Set

Skills Set Application Ranking
PracticalLanguageTeaching It is imperative that the right content is taught in language classes and the language laboratory Identified by all parties as being important
There is a relationship between the attitude, behavior and the competence of the foreign language teacher and the effectiveness of the teaching itself Considered by all parties to be highly important. Members of the focus group suggest that this is an integral part of being an effective foreign language teacher
Real life situations should be included in the foreign language teaching syllabus to prepare students for real life situations.
Some skills such as reading or listening to a foreign language need to be taught on their own and at other times all four skills (reading, writing, listening and speaking) need to be taught simultaneously. Considered important by the literature review.
Positive reinforcements and regular feedback are the trademarks of an effective foreign language teacher Identified by all parties to be highly important
It is important to keep informed of the latest thinking in foreign language teaching including new approaches and methods. Considered important by all parties
It is important to understand that theory, practice and context are important to the effective teaching of foreign languages Identified by all parties as being highly important.
It is important that foreign language teachers create synergy in the classroom or laboratory by sharing knowledge and experience consistently Considered important by the face to face interviews and the focus group meeting
Considered important by the literature review and face to face interviews.


Figure 2. The 80/20 Principle adapted from Koch (1998)