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Justice is the starting point of appraising relationship quality between a firm and its customers. Creating stable relationships with customers as well as believing in security and justice by clients, corporations will be able to earn profit. Customers will easily accept outcomes if they have decision rules’ control or they believe suppliers have responsiveness and flexibility.
The Justice literature is divided into four various types: procedural justice, interaction justice, distributive justice and informational justice. Procedural justice is defined as an effort to assure customers the procedures and the processes are based on fairness. To able them make decision easier than before. Interaction justice focuses on the fairness perception of customers about the behavior of their social interactions and covers different and complementary perspectives employee puts into a business relationship, including employee politeness, empathy and efforts. Distributive justice compares the outcomes achieved by customers with the inputs, and thus refers to the perceived fairness of tangible outcomes. Finally, informational justice is clarified as an effort to justify decisions and procedures.
Aurier and Siadou-Martin examined the role of perceived justice in either service consumption or purchase experiences and found that although justice has direct effect on satisfaction, has indirect impacts on each of outcome, interaction and value. Considering independent and interactive effects of justice (procedural and informational ones) in integration of related acquisitions, Ellis et al found that procedural justice critically effects on market positioning in an integration process, while the other one is a basic tool to attain market positioning gains.
The conceptual model encompasses the relationship between each of procedural justice and informational justice with perceived fairness in a buyer-supplier relationship which is the gap in the justice literature.
Trust is defined as confidence of customers’ reliability affects directly on outcomes and indirectly on commitment and commitment is defined as customer’s wish to have a valuable relationship.
Regarding Morgan and Hunt, one of the fundamental elements of exchange performance is the amount of trust or commitment customers have toward a seller. They developed a social exchange-based theory asserts that commitment and trust are the most significant “keys” to promote effectiveness, efficiency and productivity of dyadic relationships. They also found that commitment may enhances the financial performance. Using four years of longitudinal data, Palmatier et al compared benefits of successful interorganizational relationship performance (commitment or trust, dependence, transaction cost economics and relation norms) and found that relationship specific investments and either commitment or trust are equally important for exchanging performance.
Personal trust is the most significant behavioral element affects on outcomes. High level of trust decreases the formal control mechanisms and hence total transactions costs will be reduced. Where customers prefer to communicate with committed and trusted sellers, both trust and commitment will have positive effects on exchange performance and rational behaviors. Hamel found that if parties have high level of trust, it may cause them search the necessaries less than the time there is no trust.
Relationship-specific investments between a supplier and a focal buyer can influence on commitment of the buyer toward the seller. Other factors have positive and significant impacts on the level of trust and commitments including information sharing, dependency and idiosyncratic investment on the dyadic relationship between the them. Through commitment enhancement, value systems will be converged and so, common identities of parties will be expanded.
Scholars found that parties have more intention to share information if they believe they are not either exploited or harmed and leave short-time gains in case the other party has high amount of cost.
The conceptual model will suggest examining the effect of fairness (i.e. procedural, distributive, interaction, and information justice) on each of trust and commitment in a buyer-supplier relationship which is the gap in the trust and commitment literature.